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Blockchain Technology Summit / Speech of Whitfield Diffie, Turing Award Winner

    以下是世界公钥之父、图灵奖得主Whitfield Diffie教授在区块链底层技术峰会上的演讲全文:

(在Diffie教授演讲之前之前,杨浦区科委马庆主任演讲之后,大屏幕上展示了贝克链为Diffie教授在杨浦区区块链产业园特别准备的办公室照片)


 

I was disturbed to see my office there because I don’t think I will be able to visit often enough to drink all that wine before it begins to leak,  since it should be horizontal for long-term storage.

看到我在那里的办公室,我感到很不安,因为我访问中国的时间不足以在所有的葡萄酒在它开始泄漏之前将它们喝完,所以它应该是水平的,以便长期储存。

 

At any event, I thought I would try to tell you a little bit about the context of blockchain security.

无论如何,我想我会试着告诉你一些区块链安全的背景。

 

All the work we are doing in this area grows from all the internet, and the internet has 3 properties, all which played their role.

我们在这个领域所做的所有工作都来自互联网,互联网有3个属性,所有这些都发挥了作用。

 

The first one, the one that gets the most attention from the most people is the internet handles information by dividing it into packets.

第一个是大多数人最关注的一个是互联网通过将信息分成数据包来处理信息。

 

The purpose of that first property is to support the second property.

第一个属性的目的是支持第二个属性。

The internet does not have to spend resources on doing anything with data that aren't travailing at that moment.

互联网不必在那个时刻没有进行的数据上花费时间.

 

In the old circuit switch telephone system, when you picked up the phone in Shanghai and called Beijing, it created a wire from one city to the other like closing switches and that is very expensive, even if you have a very short call.

在旧的电路交换电话系统中,当你在上海拿起电话并打电话给北京时,他创建了一个从一个城市到另一个城市的线路, 它就像从关闭交换机那样,这非常昂贵,即使你的通话很短。

 

The third property of internet is probably the most fundamental, the most important.

互联网的第三个属性可能是最基本,最重要的。

 

The internet recognized that the correct basis for all communication is unreliable communication.

互联网认识到所有通信的正确基础是不可靠通信。

 

The internet protocol sends packets and pays no attention whether they actually get there or not but the transmission control protocol which operates above the internet

protocol, re-transmits packets unless it gets acknowledgment that they have been received.

互联网协议发送数据包并且不在乎他们是否真正到达那里,而是在互联网协议之上运行的传输控制协议,重新发送数据包,除非它确认已收到它们。

 

Internet is short for “internetwork” , a network of networks but it is fast becoming the one and only network.

互联网是“互联网络”的缩写,它是一个网络的网络,但它正迅速成为唯一的网络。

 

The jewel of the internet is the World Wide Web and the important thing is that world wide web could not have been built on top of the circuit switched system because when you connect to Baidu and search for something and pick some of the results and click on them, each thing hands you off to another thing and if something had to make a telephone call for each of those hand-offs, it would broken down as that is incredibly expensive.

互联网的宝石是万维网,重要的是万维网不能建立在电路交换系统之上,因为当你连接到百度并搜索某些东西并选择一些结果并点击它们,每一件事都会把你带到另一件事情上,如果有什么东西不得不打电话交接,这就产生阻碍, 因为话费是非常昂贵的。

 

So we’re about to expand the internet dramatically to become the internet of things.

因此,我们即将大幅扩展互联网,成为物联网。

 

So the numbers will increase for where we used to find, we would have at most 1 node per person, we now expect to have thousands of nodes per person.

我们过去常常一味的的那个数字会增加,我们每人最多有1个节点,现在我们预计每人有数千个节点。

 

And each connection, each node will have to drop substantially in size and in cost.

So the internet has 3 major themes.

One is openness that everyone can connect to the internet.

每个连接,每个节点将不得不大幅度降低成本。

因此互联网有三大主题。

一个是开放性,每个人都可以连接到互联网。

The second is decentralization, nothing that we know how to do in a streaming fashion should be done centrally.

第二个是权力下放,我们知道如何以流媒体方式做的事情应该集中进行。

And the third is the support of social processes whatever they may be.

第三是社会过程的支持,无论它们是什么。

 

So in these context, we can ask, what does “ secure internet” mean?

Because the internet is open to everyone, it is in every country, hundreds of thousands of companies, billions of people but vast diversity of objectives.

So I think what this means is we have a network rich enough that we can build secure networks, for example, for banking within the internet.

所以在这些背景下,我们可以问,“安全互联网”是什么意思?

因为互联网对所有人开放,每个国家,数十万家公司,数十亿人,但目标多种多样。

我认为这意味着我们拥有足够丰富的网络,我们可以建立安全网络,例如,在互联网内进行银行业务。

 

A major, new direction in internet security, in internet activity, in all configurable activity is blockchain.

I think we’re going to get more about that subject today.

互联网安全,互联网活动,所有可配置活动中的一个主要的新方向是区块链。

我想我们今天会更多谈论关于这个主题。

 

Blockchain have the origins in 2 things.One of them 25 years old , another 40 years old

区块链有两个源头, 一个25年历史,一个40年

The first is merkle trees which are in effect are trees of signatures.

第一个是merkle树,实际上是签名树。

第二个是开始于1990年代,在merkle tree上开展的应用

And the second is application of merkle trees that is practiced beginning in the 1990s

by two mathematicians named Lenstra and Haeber.

第二个是20世纪90年代由两位名叫LenstraHeaber的数学家开始实施的merkle树的应用。

 

So the Lenstra-Haeber times tamping system created tree signatures for the time stamps of documents on the web and every week, they would publish the root of this merkle tree in the New York Times and what blockchain is doing is replacing this publication on paper that the constant negotiation among the members of the blockchain, which periodically achieves consensus as what the root should be.

And in the inside, to get people to participate in this energetically, it’s important to reward contribution to achieving consensus.

因此,Lenstra-Haeber时间戳系统为网上文档的时间戳创建了树签名,每周他们都会在纽约时报发布这个merkle树的根,而区块链正在做的是在纸上替换这个出版物。 区块链成员之间的不断协商,定期达成共识,这就是种根源。

在内部,为了让人们积极参与,重要的是奖励对达成共识的贡献。

 

So to operate these, we need many internet security technologies and we depend on the two natural forms, one of which is static  measure analogous to doors and walls.

因此,为了操作这些,我们需要许多互联网安全技术,我们依赖于两种自然形式,其中一种是类似于门和墙的静态措施。

 

And the other is dynamic measure analogous to guards and polices.

另一种是类似于警卫和政策的动态措施。

 

So there are a number of measures of internet measuring at techniques used in internet security and the first two are these algorithmic guard to walls and doors secured

completely and cryptography.

因此,互联网安全中使用的技术有许多互联网衡量标准,前两个是完全保密和密码学的这些算法守护墙。

 

And the latter three are the dynamic technique of recognizing attacks, analyzing and

collecting evidence of attacks, and perhaps retaliating against the attackers to deter them from doing, can control behavior of much more freely occurring of components by large applications.

后三者是识别攻击,分析和收集攻击证据的动态技术,也许是针对攻击者进行报复以阻止攻击,可以控制大型应用程序更自由地发生组件的行为。

 

Unfortunately, it isn’t working very well.

It cannot make the operating systems as trustworthy as we need them to be and we cannot make the operating systems capable of controlling the applications in all cases.

不幸的是,它并没有很好地起作用。

它不能使操作系统像我们需要的那样值得信赖,并且我们无法使操作系统能够在所有情况下控制应用程序。

 

So, in brief because I like the subject,  the cryptography consists the measures for protecting confidentiality, integrity and authenticity.

因此,简而言之,因为我喜欢这个主题,密码学包括保护机密性,完整性和真实性的措施。

 

And this is the best cooked part of internet security.

Transport layer security which your browser engages in with websites.

这是互联网安全最好的部分。

您的浏览器与网站互动的传输层安全性。

 

This is the most widely deployed cartographic security system ever built.

On the military, while they are the main customers for cryptography.

It was a lot of things.

这是有史以来部署最广泛的制图安全系统。

在军队上,他们是密码学的主要客户。

这是很多事情。

 

They bought millions of something that was a lot of things.

Now, they’re opposed to a billion browsers in China alone and all of them have high grade cryptography built into them.

他们买了数百万件的东西。

现在,他们只反对中国的十亿台浏览器,而且所有这些浏览器都内置了高级加密技术。

 

There are national standard, by in large public, speaks of symmetric algorithms called Kuznyechi of a recent Russia Federations.

在大众中,有一个国家标准,谈到最近俄罗斯联邦称为Kuznyechi的对称算法。

 

These are companies by what I call a symmetric or public key cryptographic

algorithms.

These are used in signatures and managing keys.

这些是我称之为对称或公钥加密算法的公司。

这些用于签名和管理密钥。

 

Now, at present, the physicists have been promising us quantum computing and that may be absolutely wonderful,they may help solve problems of protein folding in biochemistry, but it is a threat to the current systems of a symmetric cryptography.

现在,目前,物理学家一直在向我们许诺量子计算,这可能是绝对精彩的,它们可能有助于解决生物化学中蛋白质折叠的问题,但它对当前的对称密码系统构成了威胁。

 

This has been rather slow in arriving but it is a recipient of a tremendous amount of investment, much of them are Chinese but also in the US, large corporations such as IBM and Google and Microsoft.

到达目前这种情况相当缓慢,但它是大量投资的接受者,其中大部分是中国人,但也是美国的大公司,如IBM,谷歌和微软。

 

So there are projects underway to develop new, public key algorithms that will not be vulnerable to quantum computing.

因此,正在开发一些项目来开发新的公钥算法,这些算法不会受到量子计算的影响。

 

They use parts of mathematics called lattice  theory and coding theory and they are also being slow to arrive.So we’re in, by looking at three big problems in security and

in the security of the environment in which we need to operate blockchain.

他们使用称为格理论和编码理论的数学部分,他们也很慢。所以我们通过查看安全性和我们需要操作区块链的环境安全性中的三个大问题。

 

The first we are about to discuss, we need cartographic algorithms that are not vulnerable, in the available to particularly quantum computing.

我们要讨论的第一个问题是,我们需要非易受攻击的制图算法,尤其是量子计算。

 

The second I said with the state of secure computing by in large is logic, we need to revisit that problem with new tools, perhaps with artificial intelligence will be smart enough to help us develop really secure operating systems.

第二个我说的安全计算状态是逻辑,我们需要用新工具重新审视这个问题,也许人工智能将足够聪明,可以帮助我们开发真正安全的操作系统。

 

Finally, more broadly than blockchain, more broadly than cryptography, more broadly than security, we need to make a qualitative improvement in programs.

最后,比区块链更广泛,比密码学更广泛,比安全更广泛,我们需要在计划中进行质的改进。

We, the rate and number of progress that we accept in programs is totally unacceptable.

我们,我们在计划中接受的进展速度和数量是完全不可接受的。

 

I believe in that to fully solve this problem, we will take new discoveries but I think good start could be made by just a change in the standards and the education of programs.

So those are some of my thoughts on where are headed.

I look forward to hearing the thoughts of many other people.

我相信,为了彻底解决这个问题,我们将取得新的发现,但我认为只要改变标准和计划的教育,就可以取得良好的开端。

所以这些是我对未来方向的一些看法。

我期待着听到许多其他人的想法。


附:Whitfield Diffie教授现场演讲用PPT